Introduction To Computer System

Introduction To Computer System

What Is Computer System ?

In this introduction to computer system ,we will discuss in detail what is a computer system , technical features of computer system , computer hardware , computer software , computer system architecture and other important topics related to the Computer system .

The computer system consist of both hardware and the software components . The computer hardware components are physical components mounted within computer casing and also attached externally.

The computer system needs to be directed to perform various user specified operations. And therefore , the computer system needs a program which directs the computer hardware . The computer program is also commonly referred to as software.

The introduction to computer system includes computer system hardware components such as mother board , hard disk drive ( Disk Memory ) , power unit , Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) also referred to as micro-processor , Random Access Memory ( RAM ) , computer buses , cooling fans and other hardware components.

Introduction To Computer System

Table Of Contents

Learning Computer science is now considered to be one of the best career option . The career in Computer Science  not only  offers an opportunity to work with some top notch corporate companies but also to work as an entrepreneur.

The Computer Science career also offers you an opportunity to put your career on the fast track with excellent financial rewards . In this introduction to computer science , you will learn everything you need to know about computer system.

What Is Computer System ?

A  Computer system is defined as  programmable electronics  device  that  can  be programmed  to accept  some  inputs  in  terms of  data  , then process  this  data as per the program instructions and  provide  the  Output  in  the  desired  format  that can be used for some meaningful  work .

What is Computer System

What Is Computer System ?

Features Of Computer System

  • Computer System Is Programmable.
  • Computer Accepts Raw Data And Produces Information.
  • Computer System Digital Machine.

Computer System Is Programmable

The Computer  is  programmable. That  means ,  the computer will perform the task only as per the program instructions .

And therefore , the computer needs a program written in a programming language to execute a particular task on the computer system .

The Computer program directs the computer system through series of instructions.

Computer Is Programmable

What Is Computer Program ?

The software components are computer programs. The program consist of set of instructions that directs the computer system hardware components to perform the desired operations .

The computer system interprets these program instructions and then performs the desired operations. The CPU executes the program instructions one by one.

What Is Computer Program ?

Computer Accepts Input And Provides Output

Computer Converts Raw Data Into Information

The Computer Systems can be used to perform number of operations .

For example , a company   might use the  computer system for billing , record keeping , payroll processing , accounting and many such applications.

The Computer system is also used to process the raw  data  and  produces  information  that can be used for some meaningful purpose.

The information  can be used for some meaningful  work  such as decision making within an organization .

Data Processing
Data Processing

Computer System Is Digital Machine

The Computer  is  a digital  electronic machine .  That means  , computer  can understand  and  execute  instructions  on  in binary  which consist  of  only two numbers that  is  0  and  1 . The  binary  code  is also referred  as machine code  or machine language .

The computers central processing unit ( CPU ) is the brain of the computer system. The CPU is responsible to perform both arithmetical and logical operations.

However , the computers micro-processor ( CPU ) can understand and execute instructions only in machine code in Binary .

So  , it doesn’t really matter  in which programming language you  write your program code because  eventually  ,  all computer programs  must be first converted  to  machine code in binary consisting of only 0 and 1.

Programming Languages , Computer science Fields of Study
Program Compilation , CS Fields Of Study

Why Computer Understands Binary 0 And 1 ?

Components Of Computer System

The Computer system consist of four basic components Or Units . In terms of functionality , the computer system can be grouped in to four units .

The Computer System Components are :

  1. Input Devices ( Input Unit ) .
  2. CPU ( Central Processing Unit ) .
  3. System Memory ( Memory Unit ) .
  4. Output Devices ( Output Unit ) .
Components Of Computer System

Input And Output Devises

Computer System Input Unit

The term “Input Unit ” ( Input Devises )  refers to the  input  provided   by the  user  by  using   any   input  device  such  as  keyboard  , mouse  , mike  , camera or any storage device in the form of input data.

The input data is operated and processed by the  Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) as per the program and sent to the output unit for further action.

Computer System Output Unit

The term “Output Unit ” refers to the  output  provided   by the   computer CPU after processing the user data inputs  .

This output is then sent to the output  device such as monitor , printer , speaker   to  provide desired  output to  the  user. The output can also be stored on any storage device for future use.

Computer System Block Diagram
Computer Input And Output Devices

The memory unit is an essential part of every computer system. The computer system needs memory to store the data before and after the processing.

The computer system memory unit consist of both temporary and permanent memory .

The temporary memory can store the data till the time the system is powered on . whereas the permanent memory can store the data even after the the system power is switched off.

The computer  system  makes  the  use  of  different   types  of memories organized in a hierarchical manner  and together they are referred as memory unit .

The computer memory consist of  different types of memories which  differ  in  capacity ,  access speed  ,  physical  size  and  the  cost  of the memory  .

Computer System Memory Hierarchy

Each  of  the memory is  optimally  used  in the computer system  depending upon its  access  speed  , size  and  proximity  to the  CPU .

The computer system makes use of different types memory depending upon the functional requirements .

The  computer memory  is  mainly  divided  in to  two types  based on the  data  retention  by the computer memory when  power  is  switched  off  to  the  computer system.

Computer System Memory Types

The computer memories can be grouped into  two basic types depending upon the data retention by memory when system power supply is switched off .

If the memory retains the data without power supply, then it is referred as permanent memory . For example hard disk , pen drive are permanent memory ( Also referred as secondary memory ) .

The Random Access Memory is the computer system memory for a computer system . The RAM is a temporary memory because it retains the data only till the time , the  system power supply is on.

The data in the RAM is lost once the  system is switched off . And therefore main memory RAM is referred as temporary memory ( also referred as primary memory ).

Computer System Architecture

What is Computer System Architecture ?

In  computer engineering, the computer system  architecture is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system.

It is the technical drawings and functional description of all design components and  requirements . The system architecture defines the system performance parameters such as speed and interconnections .

The System architecture can also be defined as the science and art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computer system that meet  functional , performance  and cost goals.

And therefore , better system architecture will produce a better design and system performance.

Computer System Architecture

Computer System Block Diagram

The Computer system consist of four basic components Or Units . In terms of functionality , the computer system can be grouped in to four  basic units .

The Computer System Components are :

  1. Input Unit ( Input Devices ).
  2. Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) .
  3. System Memory Unit .
  4. Output Unit ( Output Devices ) .
Computer System Block Diagram

Computer Hardware

The  computer system  mainly  consist  of  hardware components  and  the  software components .   All  the  physical  components  inside  the computer cabinet  and  the  input  / output  gadgets  attached  to  the  computer  are  referred  as  hardware  components .

The hardware  components  inside the computer  cabinet  are referred  as  internal  components  such as  motherboard .The external  hardware components attached  to the computer  system  are also referred as peripheral  devices  such  as  keyboard , mouse , monitor  .

Computer System Hardware Components
Computer System Hardware Components

Computer Hardware Components

Computer System - Motherboard

The motherboard is the main printed circuit board ( PCB ) that is mounted inside a computer cabinet. The motherboard  is a junction for connecting some important internal components .

The components that are directly placed on the motherboard include microprocessor ( CPU ) , main memory RAM , Graphic card , sound card , north bridge and south bridge.

Computer System Motherboard

Computer System - Microprocessor

The central process ring unit ( CPU ) effectively functions as a brain of the computer system.

The CPU performs arithmetic and logical operations and provides processing power of the computer system.

The CPU is mounted on the motherboard inside a processor socket which is a special slot  present on the motherboard.

The processor chip firmly placed inside CPU socket  with help of liver locking mechanism.

A heat sink and a cooling miniature fan is placed on the top of the processor chip to protect the processor chip from excessive heat generated by the processor chip.

Processor Socket On Mother Board , Central Processing Unit

What Is CPU ? | How CPU Works ? | CPU Functions

Computer System - RAM Modules

The main system memory RAM ( Random Access Memory ) modules are mounted inside special RAM slots on the motherboard . Each motherboard has fixed number of RAM slots .

The maximum permissible RAM size ( 4 GB , 8GB , 16 GB ) supported by the system depends  upon the system configuration and the type operating system  ( 32 Bit OR 64 Bit OS ).

System - Power Supply Unit

The computer system has a centralized power supply unit that provides electrical power supply to various internal components .

The desktop computer system power system is referred as SMPS which stands for Switched Mode Power Supply . The SMPS provides different voltage of power supply to different components through set of electric wires.

Computer Software

The computer software is a  set program instructions designed to perform a specific tasks . A computer program is written  in computer programming language such  as  C , C++ , Java , python and so many other languages .

The  computer system makes use of two types of software .

  1. System Software.
  2. Application Software .

The System software is used by the system itself manage and control the system hardware components. The operating system communicates with the hardware components through system software .

The System software includes Operating System ( OS ) ,device drivers and other system utility programs . The application software  are used by the computer user to perform various tasks on the system. The commonly used application software includes  MS Word , Excel .

Computer System Software Components

Computer System Software

What Is System Software ?

In computer system architecture , the System Software  is a collection of programs designed to operate , control and extend  the processing capabilities  of  the computer system and the other hardware devices connected to the computer system.

The system  software  is also   designed and developed  by the computer manufacturer to  communicate  with  specific  hardware components connected  to  the  computer system.

For example when we connect a new device to the system , we need to first install the device driver to operate the device such as  camera , printer , scanner and other such devices .

System Utility Software
Types Of System Software

Both  application programs and the operating system needs a special software called device driver to  communicate and to drive the various hardware components connected to the computer system .

The device driver is a  system  software  which functions  as an interface between the computer  hardware  and  the operating system .

The  system software programs  are  generally  written  in  a low level programming  language   such  as assembly language .

Application Software

The application software provides an interface to the computer user to perform a specific job on the computer system . For example , writing document , making presentation or managing accounts .

Application software are installed on the system to provide specific functionality to the system . The  Application software is  designed  and developed  to satisfy a specific  need  of the computer user  .

For  example MS Office , accounting  software ( Tally )  ,  engineering  drawing  software (  AutoCAD ) are some of commonly used application software.

Application Software
Computer Architecture

Application  software  can  be  single  program application  or  a  group  of   programs  bundled together such  as MS  Office. Each of these  program in a bundle has been  designed  to provide specific functionality  to the  user  .

Evolution Of Computers

The  Computers  are today integral part  of the human world  and human world today  critically depends  upon the  computing  power of  today’s modern computers .

The applications of computers are indispensible part of every industry we can possibly think of .

The Computer Science and technology  has  also evolved  over period of last few decades both in the hardware technology and also in the software domain.

However , The history of computer science began  , long before our today’s modern discipline of computer science.

In the past seventy years , the computers have evolved from room-size mega boxes to the desktops computers. And now, computers are  in  our pockets  with far  more computing power  and mobility.

Evolution Of Computer

But the modern computing-machine era began with Alan Turing’s conception of the Turing Machine, and the  invention of the transistor by three Bell Labs scientists.

The invention of transistor was a major breakthrough in the field of digital electronics . The transistor is tiny electronic component that used as a micro-switch in digital electronics .

The transistors soon replaced the bulky voles valves used in the second generation of computers. The transistors are fundamental building block of all modern processor chips .

Computer Science Evolution , Introduction to computer system

The transistors are made-up of semiconductor material silicon. The transistor can easily functions as micro-switch to represent the two states ( ON – 1 And OFF – 0 ) in binary . The transistor  is a fundamental building block  for all digital electronic devices  including computers .

The  invention  of tiny electronic component transistor  was a major technological leap forward that has  made the modern-style computing possible today .

The invention of transistor was an important milestone in field of digital electronics   which rewarded  the three Bell lab scientists  with  the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics . The Microprocessor consist of millions of these transistors.

Why Computer Use Binary Number System , Computer System

Computer Science Fundamentals Course

Online Course - Udemy

This is the most comprehensive  and unique Computer Science  And Programming Fundamentals course Online which will give you in depth understanding of most important fundamental concepts in computer science And Programming .

Don`t copy text!