Introduction To Computer System
In this introduction to computer system we will discuss in detail what is computer , computer technical features , computer hardware , computer software , computer architecture and other important topics related to the Computer system .
Introduction To Computer System
Table Of Contents
Learning Computer science is now considered to be one of the best career option . The career in Computer Science not only offers an opportunity to work with some top notch corporate companies but also to work as an entrepreneur. The Computer Science career also offers you an opportunity to put your career on the fast track with excellent financial rewards .
What Is Computer System ?
A Computer system is defined as programmable electronics device that can be programmed to accept some inputs in terms of data , then process this data as per the program instructions and provide the Output in the desired format that can be used for some meaningful work .
What Is Computer System - Video
Features Of Computer System
Computer System Is Programmable
The Computer is programmable. That means , computer will perform the task only as per the program instructions . And therefore , the computer needs a program written in a programming language to execute a particular task on the computer. The Computer program directs the computer through series of instructions.
Computer Accepts Input And Provides Output
The Computer Systems are used to perform a specific tasks . For example , a company might use computer for billing , record keeping , payroll processing , accounting and many such applications. The Computer are used to process raw data and produces information as per program instructions. The information can be used for some meaningful work such as decision making within an organization .
Computer System Is Digital Machine
The computers micro-processor ( CPU ) can understand and execute instructions only in machine code in Binary . So , it doesn’t really matter in which programming language you write your program code because eventually , all computer programs must be first converted to machine code in binary consisting of only 0 and 1.
Components Of Computer System
The Computer system consist of four basic components Or Units . In terms of functionality , the computer system can be grouped in to four units .
The Computer System Components are :
- Input Devices ( Input Unit ) .
- CPU ( Central Processing Unit ) .
- System Memory ( Memory Unit ) .
- Output Devices ( Output Unit ) .
Input And Output Devises
Computer System Input Unit
The term “Input Unit ” ( Input Devises ) refers to the input provided by the user by using any input device such as keyboard , mouse , mike , camera or any storage device in the form of input data to be processed by the computer system CPU ( Central Processing Unit ) .
Computer System Output Unit
The term “Output Unit ” refers to the output provided by the computer CPU after processing the user data inputs . This output is then sent to the output device such as monitor , printer , speaker to provide desired output to the user. The output can also be stored on any storage device for future use.
The computer system makes the use of different types of memories organized in a hierarchical manner and together they are referred as memory unit . The computer memory consist of different types of memories which differ in capacity , access speed , physical size and the cost of the memory . Each of the memory is optimally used in computer system depending upon its access speed , size and proximity to the CPU .
The computer system makes use of different types memory depending upon the functional requirements .The computer memory is mainly divided in to two types based on the data retention by the computer memory when power is switched off to the computer system.
The computer memories can be grouped into two basic types depending upon the data retention by memory when system power supply is switched off . If the memory retains the data without power supply, then it is referred as permanent memory . For example hard disk , pen drive are permanent memory ( Also referred as secondary memory ) .
The Random Access Memory is the computer system memory for a computer system . The RAM is a temporary memory because it retains the data only till the time , the system power supply is on. The data in the RAM is lost once the system is switched off . And therefore main memory RAM is referred as temporary memory ( also referred as primary memory ).
Computer System Architecture
What is Computer System Architecture ?
In computer engineering, the computer system architecture is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It is the technical drawings and functional description of all design components and requirements . The system architecture defines the system performance parameters such as speed and interconnections .
The System architecture can also be defined as the science and art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computer system that meet functional , performance and cost goals. And therefore , better architecture will produce a better design and system performance.
Computer System Block Diagram
The Computer system consist of four basic components Or Units . In terms of functionality , the computer system can be grouped in to four basic units .
The Computer System Units
- Input Unit ( Input Devices ).
- Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) .
- System Memory Unit .
- Output Unit ( Output Devices ) .
The computer system mainly consist of hardware components and the software components . All the physical components inside the computer cabinet and the input / output gadgets attached to the computer are referred as hardware components .
The hardware components inside the computer cabinet are referred as internal components such as motherboard .The external hardware components attached to the computer system are also referred as peripheral devices such as keyboard , mouse , monitor .
Computer Hardware Components
The computer system software can further be classified as System Software And Application Software . The System software is used by the system itself manage and control the system components. The System software includes Operating System ( OS ) ,device drivers and other system utility programs . The application software are used by the computer user such as MS Word , Excel .
Computer System Software
In computer system architecture , the System Software is a collection of programs designed to operate , control and extend the processing capabilities of the computer system and the other hardware devices connected to the computer system.
The system software is also designed and developed by the computer manufacturer to communicate with specific hardware components connected to the computer system such as camera , printer , scanner and other such devices .
Both application programs and the operating system need a special software called device driver to communicate and to drive the various hardware components connected to the computer system .
The device driver is a system software which functions as an interface between the computer hardware and operating system . The system software programs are generally written in a low level programming language such as assembly language .
The application software provides an interface to the computer user to perform a specific job on the computer system . For example , writing document , making presentation or managing accounts .
Application software are installed on the system to provide specific functionality to the system . The Application software is designed and developed to satisfy a specific need of the computer user . For example MS Office , accounting software ( Tally ) , engineering drawing software ( AutoCAD ) .
Application software can be single program application or a group of programs bundled together such as MS Office. Each of these program in a bundle has been designed to provide specific functionality to the user .
Evolution Of Computers
The Computers are today integral part of the human world and human world today critically depends upon the computing power of today’s modern computers . The applications of computers are indispensible part of every industry we can possibly think of .
The Computer Science and technology has also evolved over period of last few decades both in the hardware technology and also in the software domain. However , The history of computer science began , long before our today’s modern discipline of computer science.
In the past seventy years , the computers have evolved from room-size mega boxes to the desktops computers , and now in our pockets with far more computing power and mobility.
But the modern computing-machine era began with Alan Turing’s conception of the Turing Machine, and the invention of the transistor by three Bell Labs scientists.
The transistor made-up of semiconductor material silicon and functions as micro-switch to represent two states ( ON – 1 And OFF – 0 ) in binary . The transistor is a fundamental building block for all digital electronic devices including computers .
The invention of tiny electronic component transistor has made modern-style computing possible today . The invention of transistor was an important milestone in field of digital electronics which rewarded them with the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics . The Microprocessor consist of millions of transistors.
Computer Science Fundamentals Course
Online Course - Udemy
This is the most comprehensive and unique Computer Science And Programming Fundamentals course Online which will give you in depth understanding of most important fundamental concepts in computer science And Programming .