Introduction To Computer System

Introduction To Computer System

In this introduction to computer system we will discuss in detail what is computer ,  computer technical features , computer hardware , computer software , computer architecture and other important topics related to the Computer system .

The introduction to computer system includes computer system hardware components , computer system software components And Computer System Design and System Architecture .

Introduction To Computer System

Table Of Contents

Learning Computer science is now considered to be one of the best career option . The career in Computer Science  not only  offers an opportunity to work with some top notch corporate companies but also to work as an entrepreneur. The Computer Science career also offers you an opportunity to put your career on the fast track with excellent financial rewards .

What Is Computer System ?

A  Computer system is defined as  programmable electronics  device  that  can  be programmed  to accept  some  inputs  in  terms of  data  , then process  this  data as per the program instructions and  provide  the  Output  in  the  desired  format  that can be used for some meaningful  work .

What is Computer System

What Is Computer System - Video

Features Of Computer System

Computer System Is Programmable

The Computer  is  programmable. That  means ,  computer will perform the task only as per the program instructions . And therefore , the computer needs a program written in a programming language to execute a particular task on the computer. The Computer program directs the computer through series of instructions.

Computer Is Programmable

Computer Accepts Input And Provides Output

The Computer Systems are used to perform a specific tasks . For example , a company   might use computer for billing , record keeping , payroll processing , accounting and many such applications. The Computer are used to process  raw  data  and  produces  information  as per program instructions. The information  can be used for some meaningful  work  such as decision making within an organization .

Data Processing
Data Processing

Computer System Is Digital Machine

The Computer  is  a digital  electronic machine .  That means  , computer  can understand  and  execute  instructions  on  in binary  which consist  of  only two numbers that  is  0  and  1 . The  binary  code  is also referred  as machine code  or machine language .

The computers micro-processor ( CPU ) can understand and execute instructions only in machine code in Binary . So  , it doesn’t really matter  in which programming language you  write your program code because  eventually  ,  all computer programs  must be first converted  to  machine code in binary consisting of only 0 and 1.

Computer Program Compilation

Components Of Computer System

The Computer system consist of four basic components Or Units . In terms of functionality , the computer system can be grouped in to four units .

The Computer System Components are :

  1. Input Devices ( Input Unit ) .
  2. CPU ( Central Processing Unit ) .
  3. System Memory ( Memory Unit ) .
  4. Output Devices ( Output Unit ) .
Components Of Computer System

Input And Output Devises

Computer System Input Unit

The term “Input Unit ” ( Input Devises )  refers to the  input  provided   by the  user  by  using   any   input  device  such  as  keyboard  , mouse  , mike  , camera or any storage device in the form of input data  to  be processed  by the  computer system CPU ( Central Processing Unit ) .

Computer System Output Unit

The term “Output Unit ” refers to the  output  provided   by the   computer CPU after processing the user data inputs  . This output is then sent to the output  device such as monitor , printer , speaker   to  provide desired  output to  the  user. The output can also be stored on any storage device for future use.

Computer System Block Diagram
Computer Input And Output Devices

The computer  system  makes  the  use  of  different   types  of memories organized in a hierarchical manner  and together they are referred as memory unit . The computer memory consist of  different types of memories which  differ  in  capacity ,  access speed  ,  physical  size  and  the  cost  of the memory  .  Each  of  the memory is  optimally  used  in computer system  depending upon its  access  speed  , size  and  proximity  to the  CPU .

The computer system makes use of different types memory depending upon the functional requirements .The  computer memory  is  mainly  divided  in to  two types  based on the  data  retention  by the computer memory when  power  is  switched  off  to  the  computer system.

Computer System Memory Types

The computer memories can be grouped into  two basic types depending upon the data retention by memory when system power supply is switched off . If the memory retains the data without power supply, then it is referred as permanent memory . For example hard disk , pen drive are permanent memory ( Also referred as secondary memory ) .

The Random Access Memory is the computer system memory for a computer system . The RAM is a temporary memory because it retains the data only till the time , the  system power supply is on. The data in the RAM is lost once the  system is switched off . And therefore main memory RAM is referred as temporary memory ( also referred as primary memory ).

Computer System Architecture

What is Computer System Architecture ?

In  computer engineering, the computer system  architecture is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It is the technical drawings and functional description of all design components and  requirements . The system architecture defines the system performance parameters such as speed and interconnections .

The System architecture can also be defined as the science and art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computer system that meet  functional , performance  and cost goals. And therefore , better architecture will produce a better design and system performance.

Computer System Architecture

Computer System Block Diagram

The Computer system consist of four basic components Or Units . In terms of functionality , the computer system can be grouped in to four  basic units .

  The Computer System Units 

  1. Input Unit ( Input Devices ).
  2. Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) .
  3. System Memory Unit .
  4. Output Unit ( Output Devices ) .
Computer System Block Diagram

Computer Hardware

The  computer system  mainly  consist  of  hardware components  and  the  software components .   All  the  physical  components  inside  the computer cabinet  and  the  input  / output  gadgets  attached  to  the  computer  are  referred  as  hardware  components .

The hardware  components  inside the computer  cabinet  are referred  as  internal  components  such as  motherboard .The external  hardware components attached  to the computer  system  are also referred as peripheral  devices  such  as  keyboard , mouse , monitor  .

Computer System Hardware Components
Computer System Hardware Components

Computer Hardware Components

Computer Software

The computer software is a  set program instructions designed to perform a specific tasks . A computer program is written  in computer programming language such  as  C , C++ , Java , python and so many other languages .

The  computer system software can further be classified as System Software And Application Software . The System software is used by the system itself manage and control the system components. The System software includes Operating System ( OS ) ,device drivers and other system utility programs . The application software  are used by the computer user such as  MS Word , Excel .

Computer System Software Components

Computer System Software

In computer system architecture , the System Software  is a collection of programs designed to operate , control and extend  the processing capabilities  of  the computer system and the other hardware devices connected to the computer system.

The system  software  is also   designed and developed  by the computer manufacturer to  communicate  with  specific  hardware components connected  to  the  computer system such as camera , printer , scanner and other such devices .

System Utility Software
Types Of System Software

Both  application programs and the operating system need a special software called device driver to  communicate and to drive the various hardware components connected to the computer system .

The device driver is a  system  software  which functions  as an interface between the computer  hardware  and  operating system . The  system software programs  are  generally  written  in  a low level programming  language   such  as assembly language .

Application Software

The application software provides an interface to the computer user to perform a specific job on the computer system . For example , writing document , making presentation or managing accounts .

Application software are installed on the system to provide specific functionality to the system . The  Application software is  designed  and developed  to satisfy a specific  need  of the computer user  . For  example MS Office , accounting  software ( Tally )  ,  engineering  drawing  software (  AutoCAD ) .

Application Software
Computer Architecture

Application  software  can  be  single  program application  or  a  group  of   programs  bundled together such  as MS  Office. Each of these  program in a bundle has been  designed  to provide specific functionality  to the  user  .

Evolution Of Computers

The  Computers  are today integral part  of the human world  and human world today  critically depends  upon the  computing  power of  today’s modern computers . The applications of computers are indispensible part of every industry we can possibly think of .

The Computer Science and technology  has  also evolved  over period of last few decades both in the hardware technology and also in the software domain. However , The history of computer science began  , long before our today’s modern discipline of computer science.

In the past seventy years , the computers have evolved from room-size mega boxes to the desktops computers , and now  in  our pockets  with far  more computing power  and mobility.

Evolution Of Computer

But the modern computing-machine era began with Alan Turing’s conception of the Turing Machine, and the  invention of the transistor by three Bell Labs scientists.

Computer Science Evolution , Introduction to computer system

The transistor made-up of semiconductor material silicon  and functions as micro-switch to represent two states ( ON – 1 And OFF – 0 ) in binary . The transistor  is a fundamental building block  for all digital electronic devices  including computers .

The  invention  of tiny electronic component transistor  has  made modern-style computing possible today . The invention of transistor was an important milestone in field of digital electronics   which rewarded  them  with  the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics . The Microprocessor consist of millions of transistors.

Why Computer Use Binary Number System , Computer System

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