Introduction To Computer System
What Is Computer System ?
In this introduction to computer system ,we will discuss in detail what is a computer system , technical features of computer system , computer hardware , computer software , computer system architecture and other important topics related to the Computer system .
The computer system consist of both hardware and the software components . The computer hardware components are physical components mounted within computer casing and also attached externally.
The computer system needs to be directed to perform various user specified operations. And therefore , the computer system needs a program which directs the computer hardware . The computer program is also commonly referred to as software.
The introduction to computer system includes computer system hardware components such as mother board , hard disk drive ( Disk Memory ) , power unit , Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) also referred to as micro-processor , Random Access Memory ( RAM ) , computer buses , cooling fans and other hardware components.
Introduction To Computer System
Table Of Contents
Learning Computer science is now considered to be one of the best career option . The career in Computer Science not only offers an opportunity to work with some top notch corporate companies but also to work as an entrepreneur.
The Computer Science career also offers you an opportunity to put your career on the fast track with excellent financial rewards . In this introduction to computer science , you will learn everything you need to know about computer system.
What Is Computer System ?
A Computer system is defined as programmable electronics device that can be programmed to accept some inputs in terms of data , then process this data as per the program instructions and provide the Output in the desired format that can be used for some meaningful work .
What Is Computer System ?
Features Of Computer System
Computer System Is Programmable
The Computer is programmable. That means , the computer will perform the task only as per the program instructions .
And therefore , the computer needs a program written in a programming language to execute a particular task on the computer system .
The Computer program directs the computer system through series of instructions.
What Is Computer Program ?
The software components are computer programs. The program consist of set of instructions that directs the computer system hardware components to perform the desired operations .
The computer system interprets these program instructions and then performs the desired operations. The CPU executes the program instructions one by one.
Computer Accepts Input And Provides Output
Computer Converts Raw Data Into Information
The Computer Systems can be used to perform number of operations .
For example , a company might use the computer system for billing , record keeping , payroll processing , accounting and many such applications.
The Computer system is also used to process the raw data and produces information that can be used for some meaningful purpose.
The information can be used for some meaningful work such as decision making within an organization .
Computer System Is Digital Machine
The computers central processing unit ( CPU ) is the brain of the computer system. The CPU is responsible to perform both arithmetical and logical operations.
However , the computers micro-processor ( CPU ) can understand and execute instructions only in machine code in Binary .
So , it doesn’t really matter in which programming language you write your program code because eventually , all computer programs must be first converted to machine code in binary consisting of only 0 and 1.
Components Of Computer System
The Computer system consist of four basic components Or Units . In terms of functionality , the computer system can be grouped in to four units .
The Computer System Components are :
- Input Devices ( Input Unit ) .
- CPU ( Central Processing Unit ) .
- System Memory ( Memory Unit ) .
- Output Devices ( Output Unit ) .
Input And Output Devises
Computer System Input Unit
The term “Input Unit ” ( Input Devises ) refers to the input provided by the user by using any input device such as keyboard , mouse , mike , camera or any storage device in the form of input data.
The input data is operated and processed by the Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) as per the program and sent to the output unit for further action.
Computer System Output Unit
The term “Output Unit ” refers to the output provided by the computer CPU after processing the user data inputs .
This output is then sent to the output device such as monitor , printer , speaker to provide desired output to the user. The output can also be stored on any storage device for future use.
The memory unit is an essential part of every computer system. The computer system needs memory to store the data before and after the processing.
The computer system memory unit consist of both temporary and permanent memory .
The temporary memory can store the data till the time the system is powered on . whereas the permanent memory can store the data even after the the system power is switched off.
The computer system makes the use of different types of memories organized in a hierarchical manner and together they are referred as memory unit .
The computer memory consist of different types of memories which differ in capacity , access speed , physical size and the cost of the memory .
Each of the memory is optimally used in the computer system depending upon its access speed , size and proximity to the CPU .
The computer system makes use of different types memory depending upon the functional requirements .
The computer memory is mainly divided in to two types based on the data retention by the computer memory when power is switched off to the computer system.
The computer memories can be grouped into two basic types depending upon the data retention by memory when system power supply is switched off .
If the memory retains the data without power supply, then it is referred as permanent memory . For example hard disk , pen drive are permanent memory ( Also referred as secondary memory ) .
The Random Access Memory is the computer system memory for a computer system . The RAM is a temporary memory because it retains the data only till the time , the system power supply is on.
The data in the RAM is lost once the system is switched off . And therefore main memory RAM is referred as temporary memory ( also referred as primary memory ).
Computer System Architecture
What is Computer System Architecture ?
In computer engineering, the computer system architecture is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system.
It is the technical drawings and functional description of all design components and requirements . The system architecture defines the system performance parameters such as speed and interconnections .
The System architecture can also be defined as the science and art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computer system that meet functional , performance and cost goals.
And therefore , better system architecture will produce a better design and system performance.
Computer System Block Diagram
The Computer system consist of four basic components Or Units . In terms of functionality , the computer system can be grouped in to four basic units .
The Computer System Components are :
- Input Unit ( Input Devices ).
- Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) .
- System Memory Unit .
- Output Unit ( Output Devices ) .
The computer system mainly consist of hardware components and the software components . All the physical components inside the computer cabinet and the input / output gadgets attached to the computer are referred as hardware components .
The hardware components inside the computer cabinet are referred as internal components such as motherboard .The external hardware components attached to the computer system are also referred as peripheral devices such as keyboard , mouse , monitor .
Computer Hardware Components
Computer System - Motherboard
The motherboard is the main printed circuit board ( PCB ) that is mounted inside a computer cabinet. The motherboard is a junction for connecting some important internal components .
The components that are directly placed on the motherboard include microprocessor ( CPU ) , main memory RAM , Graphic card , sound card , north bridge and south bridge.
Computer System - Microprocessor
The central process ring unit ( CPU ) effectively functions as a brain of the computer system.
The CPU performs arithmetic and logical operations and provides processing power of the computer system.
The CPU is mounted on the motherboard inside a processor socket which is a special slot present on the motherboard.
The processor chip firmly placed inside CPU socket with help of liver locking mechanism.
A heat sink and a cooling miniature fan is placed on the top of the processor chip to protect the processor chip from excessive heat generated by the processor chip.
Computer System - RAM Modules
The main system memory RAM ( Random Access Memory ) modules are mounted inside special RAM slots on the motherboard . Each motherboard has fixed number of RAM slots .
The maximum permissible RAM size ( 4 GB , 8GB , 16 GB ) supported by the system depends upon the system configuration and the type operating system ( 32 Bit OR 64 Bit OS ).
System - Power Supply Unit
The computer system has a centralized power supply unit that provides electrical power supply to various internal components .
The desktop computer system power system is referred as SMPS which stands for Switched Mode Power Supply . The SMPS provides different voltage of power supply to different components through set of electric wires.
The computer system makes use of two types of software .
The System software is used by the system itself manage and control the system hardware components. The operating system communicates with the hardware components through system software .
The System software includes Operating System ( OS ) ,device drivers and other system utility programs . The application software are used by the computer user to perform various tasks on the system. The commonly used application software includes MS Word , Excel .
Computer System Software
What Is System Software ?
In computer system architecture , the System Software is a collection of programs designed to operate , control and extend the processing capabilities of the computer system and the other hardware devices connected to the computer system.
The system software is also designed and developed by the computer manufacturer to communicate with specific hardware components connected to the computer system.
For example when we connect a new device to the system , we need to first install the device driver to operate the device such as camera , printer , scanner and other such devices .
Both application programs and the operating system needs a special software called device driver to communicate and to drive the various hardware components connected to the computer system .
The device driver is a system software which functions as an interface between the computer hardware and the operating system .
The system software programs are generally written in a low level programming language such as assembly language .
The application software provides an interface to the computer user to perform a specific job on the computer system . For example , writing document , making presentation or managing accounts .
Application software are installed on the system to provide specific functionality to the system . The Application software is designed and developed to satisfy a specific need of the computer user .
For example MS Office , accounting software ( Tally ) , engineering drawing software ( AutoCAD ) are some of commonly used application software.
Application software can be single program application or a group of programs bundled together such as MS Office. Each of these program in a bundle has been designed to provide specific functionality to the user .
Evolution Of Computers
The Computers are today integral part of the human world and human world today critically depends upon the computing power of today’s modern computers .
The applications of computers are indispensible part of every industry we can possibly think of .
The Computer Science and technology has also evolved over period of last few decades both in the hardware technology and also in the software domain.
However , The history of computer science began , long before our today’s modern discipline of computer science.
In the past seventy years , the computers have evolved from room-size mega boxes to the desktops computers. And now, computers are in our pockets with far more computing power and mobility.
But the modern computing-machine era began with Alan Turing’s conception of the Turing Machine, and the invention of the transistor by three Bell Labs scientists.
The invention of transistor was a major breakthrough in the field of digital electronics . The transistor is tiny electronic component that used as a micro-switch in digital electronics .
The transistors soon replaced the bulky voles valves used in the second generation of computers. The transistors are fundamental building block of all modern processor chips .
The transistors are made-up of semiconductor material silicon. The transistor can easily functions as micro-switch to represent the two states ( ON – 1 And OFF – 0 ) in binary . The transistor is a fundamental building block for all digital electronic devices including computers .
The invention of tiny electronic component transistor was a major technological leap forward that has made the modern-style computing possible today .
The invention of transistor was an important milestone in field of digital electronics which rewarded the three Bell lab scientists with the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics . The Microprocessor consist of millions of these transistors.
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