What Is CPU

What Is CPU ?

How CPU Works | CPU Functions | Definition

The CPU stands for, Central  Processing  Unit .The C P U is one the most important component, within a  computer system. The CPU  is also alternately referred to as a processor, central processor, or  a  microprocessor .

It is the C P U,  that actually provides the processing power to the computer system. The C P U works at very high speed and performs millions of calculations per second  in order to execute any program.

In this article , you will learn , what is CPU ? , How CPU works ? , Functions Of C P U and other important topics related to the Central Processing Unit.

What Is Central Processing Unit ?

What Is CPU ?

The computer systems are extensively used for various applications  primarily due to its ability to process large volumes of data at very high speed . The computer system gets this ability due to an internal  component called Central Processing Unit.

The CPU is an electronic component that is packed with integrated circuit ( IC ) chips . The CPU controls all the operations performed by the computer system. The C P U is also responsible to execute the computer program.

What Is Central Processing Unit ( CPU )

The C P U provides the processing power to the computer system . The computer hardware technology is growing at fast pace and new processors are being introduced in the market with significant improvement in the processing power.

The famous Moors law had predicted this rapid advancement in the computer hardware technology long back  especially in the processing power of the C P U. As per this law , the C P U processing power will double every two years.

The commercial name of the C P U is “Microprocessor” or simply a processor. The  CPU is said to be the  brain of the computer system . The C P U performs all  the arithmetic  calculations  and  logical  operations to perform various operations.

The C P U market is dominated by two players . That is Intel and AMD. These two U S companies produce and control most the processor market.

What Is Microprocessor ?

CPU Architecture

In order to understand the CPU architecture and the functions of internal components of the C P U , we need to first discuss , how C P U executes a program.

The Operating System ( OS ) loads the program to be executed into the main memory RAM. The C P U starts the program execution by fetching the data and program statements from the main memory into the C P U memory unit.

The C P U operates on the data as per the program instructions and stores the processed data back into the main memory RAM . The operating system sends this data to the output device such as monitor.

Computer System

CPU Architecture

The Central Processing Unit ( C P U ) is internally consist of three major units . In other words , the C P U processing functions can be grouped into three units . These units include :

  • Arithmetic Logic Unit ( ALU ) .
  • Control Unit ( CU ).
  • Memory Unit .

Arithmetic Logic Unit ( ALU )

The Arithmetic Logic Unit ( ALU ) of the CPU , performs, all the arithmetic, and logical operations. The ALU performs the desired operation on the data as specified in the program code. The Control unit decodes the program instruction for the operation to be performed by the ALU.

Control Unit ( CU )

The Control Unit ( CU )  Of the C P U controls the functioning of  all the internal components and other devices connected to the system. The control unit also decodes the each program instruction as per the OPCODE and ALU then performs the operation on the OPERAND.

computer C P U
computer C P U

CPU Memory Unit

The C P U works at very high speed and makes use of high speed internal memory called Registers . The memory unit, within a C P U consist of, High speed memory , that is used by the C P U, to store the data during the program execution.

CPU And Motherboard Architecture

The motherboard is the main printed circuit board ( PCB ) in a computer system where all the major system components are interconnected.

The   microprocessor chip  is  placed  on  the  motherboard  into the  processor  socket  which holds the processor chip . The C P U socket comes with a liver locking mechanism which firmly holds the processor chip into the C P U socket.

The CPU works at very high speed that generates considerable heat . And therefore , a heat-sink  is mounted on the top of the processor chip which  protects  the processor chip  from damage due to excessive heat.

Computer System Motherboard

Computer System Motherboard

How CPU Executes Program

Machine Cycle | Instruction Cycle

The main function  of the CPU is to  execute the program and the operating system allocates  the  necessary  resources  to  run the  program.

The  program  contains  number  of  program  statements  which are  instructions  to the  CPU  to  perform  a  specific  task. The  C P U  has to repetitively  perform  the     Instruction  Cycle ( Machine Cycle ) which is the basic operation of the CPU.

The machine cycle consist of, four basic operations performed by the CPU . These four instruction cycle , operations include

  • 1. FETCH
  • 2. DECODE
  • 3. EXECUTE
  • 4. STORE

CPU Instruction Cycle

Arithmetic Logic Unit , Central Processing Unit , What IS CPU

CPU Functions

The C P U performs some of the most important functions in a computer System and these functions include :

  • To Perform Arithmetic Calculation Operations.
  • To Perform Logical Operations.
  • To Control Functions Of Other Hardware Components.
  • To Fetch the Data And Program Instructions From Main Memory.
  • To Decode the Program Instructions.
  • To Operate On Data As per Program Instructions.
  • To Store Data After Processing.
  • To Continuously Execute Instruction Cycle / Machine Cycle.

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