Database Management System


Database Management System

What Is DBMS ? | Types Of DBMS | RDBMS | MySQL

The Database Management System ( DBMS ) is a software application used to create , manage and administer the databases. The DBMS also provides the necessary tools required for the design and development of the databases.

A database management system (DBMS) is software that is used for the creation, organization, management, and manipulation of databases. It provides a systematic way to store, retrieve, update, and manage data efficiently and securely.

A DBMS serves as an intermediary between users and the physical database. It allows users to interact with the database by providing a set of tools and interfaces to perform various database operations such as querying, updating, and maintaining data. Therefore, all software that manipulate and store data need DBMS to perform these functions.

Database Management System , DBMS , RDBMS , डीबीएमएस ,

Database Management System ( DBMS ) is a vital component of most of the software applications . Whether you are working on a enterprise software development project or you may be developing a small website , the database design and development skills are needed in almost all software applications.

The  business corporations are  investing  huge amount of money for the collection , analysis  and  management of   large volumes  data which is  critically important  to support the day-to-day  business  operations  of the company .

 And  therefore  , the  database management professionals  are in great demand  having expertise in developing  the software applications to  handle the large volume of data  , designing the database and for the database administration .

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Characteristics of DBMS

The DBMS characteristics and properties includes:

  • It provides controlled data access and data security.
  • It does not allow duplication of data thus reduce data redundancy.
  • It provides tools and systems to create and manage databases.
  • It provides an interface between application programs and database.
  • It supports multiple levels of data access and data views.
  • It allows secure sharing of data and user permissions.
  • It allows management of multiuser transaction processing.
  • Database Management Software allows to define relationship between various database entities represented by tables.
  • It enforces database integrity with ACID concept (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability).
  • DBMS supports standard database communication language SQL.
  • It facilitates import and export of data.
  • DBMS supports database administration within a multi-user environment.
  • It facilitates generation and presentation of various MIS reports.

Database Management System

What Is Data ?

Before we start discussion on the database , let us first understand the meaning of term data for a database design professional.

The  data  is  the most  important  element  of any  DBMS. And therefore , It is important to understand  what data means to the  database user , database  designers and  to the computer system  at  the hardware level  .

What Is Data , DBMS , Database Management systems

The term data  simply  means  recordable facts , observations  , factual information , set of values  and  figures  that can be processed with the help of a computer system and DBMS software.

For example if we are designing a database to store the employee data then all the employee related information such as Name , Address , Designation , DOB , Salary  can be stored as employee data.

Database Management System

What Is A Data Processing ?

The  data generally means raw data that needs to be collected , processed  and cannot be used  directly  for  some  meaningful work such as decision making .

However, once the data is processed into  the information , then it can be used  for some meaningful purpose such as MIS ( Management Information System ) used for decision making .

Therefore ,  It said that Information  is  a  processed  data .

The  data  processing  essentially means manipulation of data  with  the help of  computer system  and  a  software application that defines the database operations to be performed .

The  raw data is first  converted into machine readable form  so that it can be processed  by the computer  as per the  program instructions .

Data Processing Example

Data Processing , What Is Data

For example,  employee attendance data is first recorded and then processed with the help of payroll processing software to calculate the employee salary details every month.

The data processing  is  extensively used  for  Business , Engineering , Scientific  Research and practically in every industry.

Depending upon the volume of data  , high speed  computer systems  and the software applications designed to process the data are  used .

Some popular examples of database management systems (DBMS) include Oracle Database, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, PostgreSQL, and MongoDB. Each DBMS may have its own specific features, capabilities, and usage scenarios, but they all aim to efficiently manage and organize data in a structured and secure manner.

What Is A Database ?

database is a computer based  record keeping system that is used to record , maintain and retrieve the data .

In other words , database is an organized collection of  interrelated  records such  as  employee  database  OR  customer database.

The main purpose of the database is to operate  and handle  large amount of information ( data )  by efficiently storing , retrieving  and  managing  the  data  in the database .

What Is Database

DBMS Video Tutorial

What Is Database ?

The  database  is  a  key  component of  most  software applications  which are designed  to  store the  information about  some real world business entities such as  employee database , customer database ,  student database  and so on.

The database  is the well organized collection of  interrelated data  which makes it possible  to easily access , retrieve  and store the data for future use .  The  databases  are  created  , administered  and  managed  by using  any  DBMS  software .

Data Features
Database Features

Database Management System

What Is DBMS ?

The  DBMS  stands for Database Management system.

The DBMS is a  software or a group of programs designed  to perform the database operations  such as creating new database , administering  and managing the databases by performing various user specified database operations .

The DBMS allows the end users to perform various database operations such as creating a new records , save data , edit data , delete data , read and manipulate the data .

What Is Database Management System , Database Management System , DBMS , What Is DBMS

The database user interacts with the application program. The application programs communicates with the DBMS using  SQL ( Structured Query Language ) commands. The DBMS effectively functions as an interface between the application program  and the database. The DBMS operates on the database as per the SQL commands.

The DBMS also enforce certain constrains to ensure that the data stored is consistent and accurate.

What Is DBMS ?

The DBMS provides the centralized view of the data that can be accessed simultaneously by number of database users . The Database can be accessed by either actual end user , database programmer or by database administrator .

The DBMS gives complete control to the database administrator to decide which data can be viewed by the user and operations that user can perform on that data .

The database administrator can create different groups of database users and set the access permissions .

What Is DBMS ?

The DBMS also provides an abstracted view of the database thereby completely hiding the complexities involved in how the data is actually physically stored into the database .

However , the end user generally interacts with the database through application software interface.

How Database System Works
Most Commonly Used RDBMS , Database Management System

Some of the most commonly used DBMS includes MySQL , Oracle , MS SQL Server , Oracle , IBM DB2 , MS Access , Maria DB , Mango DB , Postgre SQL and there are many more.

These DBMS are based on the Relational Database Model hence referred as Relational Database Management System ( RDBMS ) .

Database Management System

Functions Of DBMS

DBMS interacts with the physical database , manipulates and operates on the data and performs some critical database operations. Some key functions of a typical DBMS include:

1. Data Definition

A DBMS allows users to define the structure of the database schema, including tables, relationships, constraints, and data types.

2. Data Manipulation

Users can insert, update, delete, and retrieve data from the database using query languages such as SQL (Structured Query Language). DBMS provides mechanisms to process these queries efficiently and optimize performance.

3. Data Integrity And Security

DBMS enforces data integrity constraints, such as enforcing unique values, primary key constraints, referential integrity, and data validation rules. It also provides security mechanisms to control access to the database and protect data from unauthorized access.

4. Concurrency Control

DBMS manages concurrent access to the database by multiple users or applications to ensure data consistency. It handles concurrent transactions, maintains isolation, and provides mechanisms like locks and transaction management to prevent conflicts and maintain data integrity.

5. Data Recovery And Backup

DBMS implements mechanisms to recover the database in case of failures, such as system crashes, disk failures, or other disasters. It allows for regular backups and provides restore and recovery options to minimize data loss.

6. Data Abstraction And Independence

DBMS provides data abstraction, which means it hides the complexity of the underlying data structures and operations from users. It allows users to work with high-level conceptual models such as tables and relationships without worrying about the physical implementation details.

7. Scalability And Performance Optimization

DBMS is designed to handle large volumes of data and optimize performance. It employs various techniques such as indexing, query optimization, caching, and data partitioning to improve query response time and scalability.

Database Management System

DBMS Advantages

A  DBMS  is  integral  and  indispensible  part of almost all modern organizations  irrespective  of  the size  and scale  of the  business operations.    A  DBMS  offers  many advantages as compared to any traditional   computer  based  record keeping system.

Database Management System

Most Popular DBMS

DBMS Examples

The DBMS market is dominated by the top industry players . MySQL , Oracle And MS SQL sever continues to be the dominant players in DBMS market . The list is not in the order of ranking .

Some of the most popular and widely used  RDBMS  include :

Most Popular DBMS , Database , DBMS Database Management Systems , RDBMS

Database Management System


MySQL is the most popular and extensively used  open source DBMS . MySQL is a Relational Database Management System ( RDBMS ) based on relational database model .

MySQL is  extensively being used for providing database functionality to the  web based applications and websites.

MySQL Functions

Another major advantage of  MySQL  database is open source  ,  that means   the user has access to the source code under license ,  which  can  be modified as per  needs . 

My SQL  also offers a paid  enterprise version , which offers some additional plug-ins , to augment the existing functionality . 

MySQL with its proven track record of  performance , reliability , scalability and ease-of-use  has become  default  choice  for  some of the largest  web applications such as Facebook , Twitter and YouTube.

Database Evolution

File System Databases Vs DBMS

The  first generation of   Databases were based on the collection of unrelated   files  . The  file system  based  database  was  logical extension of manual record  keeping ,  but it  was  a  computer based  record  keeping .

In  a file system database  , the files  were grouped  and  organized in folders . The file system databases  had many limitations . Any change made  in  file  structure , needed  a  corresponding change in the program  code   designed  to  operate  on these files .

A File system database is a DBMS that allows access to single files or a single tables at a time. The File System organizes the either in a single file or group of files stored on a local hard disk.

These files are not interrelated and it is difficult to establish relationship between these files . The file is referred as flat file when  the data is stored in a single file .

Database Management System

DBMS Characteristics

1. DBMS Can Handle Wide Range Of Data Types

The DBMS offers wide options for data types and  therefore, it is easier to model any real world database entity in DBMS .

2. DBMS Is ACID Compliant

DBMS Is ACID ( Accuracy, Completeness, Isolation, and  Durability ) Compliant . The DBMS can enforce the constrains on the user data and operations to ensure the accuracy and the consistency of the data in a database.

3. DBMS Allows Controlled Access

The DBMS allows to create different types of User groups and set different access permissions to these groups .

4. DBMS Allows To Define Relationships

The DBMS allows the database designers to define the logical schema of the database. The database designers can create logical entities such as table and establish relations between the tables .

5. DBMS Can Be Configured

The DBMS can be configured to support  complex  computer networks and system architecture such as multi-location distributed database operations without any technical issues  with concurrent database operations.

6. DBMS Provides Database Safety

The DBMS offers many features to ensure the data security and the  safety of the database such as back and recovery  which makes the life much easier for database administrators .

Database Management System

Types Of DBMS

Types Of Database Models

The  database design  approach  depends upon the database model being implemented.

It is important  for  database design professional ,  to understand the different types of database models and  how these database models are  fundamentally different in terms of their design approach.

A  database model  is  a  type  of database  structure that  determines  the  logical structure of the database and fundamentally determines , the manner in which the data can be stored, organized and manipulated  within  a  database .

Most database management systems are built with  a particular database  model in mind and require their users to adopt that model .

For  example,   MySQL   DBMS supports  only  “Relational Database Model” although  some DBMS  do  support  multiple database  models.

Hierarchical Database Model

The hierarchical  database model is based on  parent-child  relationship . It  is  a   database model  in  which , the data is organized  into  a  tree-like structure. The data is  stored  as records which are connected to one another through  links.

A  record  is  a collection of fields , with each  field  containing only one value. The entity type of a record defines , which fields the record  contains .

Network Database Model

The network database model was a progression from the hierarchical database model . The network database model was designed to solve some of the model’s problems such as  the lack of flexibility.

The network database model allows each child to have multiple parents . The network database model can handle needs  to model more complex relationships .  

Hierarchical Database Model , Database Management System
Network Database Model , Database Management System

The main advantage of the network database model  as compared with the hierarchical model is the ability  to handle more complex relations such as many-to-many relations by allowing  records  to have  more than one parent .

Database Management System

Relational Database Model

The ‘Relational Database Model is the most commonly used model in the industry today. Some  of the  most popular RDBMS ( Relational Database Management System ) being used  are  based  on the relational model and that includes  MySQL , Oracle , MS Access and   MS SQL .

 A relational database is based on the relational model proposed and  developed by E.F. Codd  who was an English computer scientist  while he was working for IBM .

Relational Database Model , RDBMS , Database Normalization
Relational Database Model , RDBMS , Database Normalization

In  a relational database model  , the database is logically organized  as  group of related tables . Each table can have multiple rows and columns . A table is a collection  of  records  related  to  an  entity .

Each row in a table represents a record ( Tuple / Row ) which  consist  of number of data fields . A column  in a table  represents  an  attribute   for  a database  entity . 


What are Relational Databases ?

Database Management System

Object Oriented Database Model

The  Object Oriented programming ( OOP )  is a programming style that is associated with some fundamental design  concepts ,  which govern the manner in which a  program code is  organized  and  written  in OOP . 

The  Object Oriented Programming ( OOP )   is an approach to software application development in which  all application components  are treated as objects and the actions performed by these objects.

An object is a component of a program that binds data and methods together . The methods  knows how to perform certain actions on the data and how to interact with other elements of the program. The Objects are the basic units of object Oriented  programming  .

Object Oriented Database Model
Object Oriented Database Management System

The Object Oriented Database Model ( OODM ) is based on the core concepts of Object Oriented programming and  provides  all  the features of  Object Oriented Programming ( OOP ) .

 In  OODMS , all the  database objects  are represented  in the form of objects . This  model  allows the database  designers ,  to easily model  complex  databases .

Database Management System

DBMS Architecture

The DBMS has become critical component of most business organizations , which helps the organizations to record and manage all business transactions .

The selection of the suitable DBMS depends upon several factors and  the database system architecture is designed accordingly to meet the  needs of an organization.

The database system architecture is generally based on the client server architecture and the computer networking technology to provide the suitable  database system solution as per the needs of an organization.

The DBMS can be configured to meet the  database system requirements and   system architecture  is  designed to support such database system .

The client – Server Architecture  can  be categorized  into three  types depending upon the number of tiers ( Presentation , Business And Database Tier )  present on one computer . The  most commonly used client server  architecture  include  :

Database Management System

DBMS Architecture

Single Tier Architecture

There are three components of DBMS architecture . Presentation tier , business tier and the database tier .

In  Single tier DBMS architecture  all the three  tiers ( also referred as layers Or logic ) which includes  Presentation tier  ( GUI Interface ) , Business tier ( Application Software )  and Data tier ( Database )  resides on the same  computer  system .

DBMS Single Tier Architecture Diagram

DBMS Architecture , Single Tier Architecture , DBMS , Database , RDBMS

The presentation tier is a software application that end user interacts to communicate with the database . The business tier generally resides on the server and holds the business logic. The database tier again resides on the server where the data is actually stored into the database.

Database Management System

DBMS Architecture

Two Tier DBMS Architecture

In  two tier client server architecture , the Presentation tier  ( GUI Interface ) resides on the Client system whereas the remaining two tiers i.e Business tier ( Application Software )  and Data tier ( Database )  resides on the same  computer  system  .

DBMS Two Tier Architecture Diagram

DBMS Architecture , Two Tier Architecture , Database Management System

DBMS Architecture

Three Tier DBMS Architecture

In  three tier client server architecture all three layers / logic / tiers resides on a separate system.  The front end Presentation tier  ( GUI Interface ) resides on the Client system , the Business tier ( Application Software )  and Data tier ( Database )  resides on the separate  computer  system  .

Three Tier DBMS Architecture Diagram

DBMS Architecture , Three Tier Architecture , Database Management System

Database Management System

What Is Data Independence ?

Logical And Physical Data Independence

The database management system allows the database designers both logical and physical data independence. The database schema defines the view of the database at three levels that is external schema , logical schema and internal schema .

The data independence is the ability to modify a schema definition in one level ( either Internal , logical Or external schema ) without affecting a schema definition in the next higher level.

DBMS Three Schema Architecture

DBMS Three Schema Architecture , Data Independence , Database Management System

The logical data independence provides a simplified view of the database and the end user need not worry about complexities of  how the  data is physically being stored  and  any changes in the hardware ( Storage devices ) .

The end user interacts with the application program which acts as an interface between the user and DBMS. The application program makes use of the  DBMS API ( Application Programming Interface ).

And therefore, the application program doesn’t require any modification due to changes in the database structure .

Database Management System


Database System Environment

The database system environment refers to a set of components used within a database system that define and control the collection, storage, management and  use of  data . Each  component  performs a specific  role  within  a  database system  environment.

A DBMS structure usually consist of number of  components ( Also referred as modules ) depending upon DBMS architecture and the relationships between these components .

The DBMS software internally might consist of  several modules. Each module or component is assigned to perform a specific  database operation .

Database System Environment Components

DBMS Environment Components

Some of the functions of the DBMS are supported by the operating system ( OS ) to provide basic services and DBMS is built on top of it . The physical data and system catalogue  are stored  on  a  physical  storage  disk.

Database Management System


Relational Database Management System

The Relational Database Management System ( RDBMS ) is the most commonly used databases in the industry today. Some  of the  most popular DBMS being used  are  based  on the relational model  that includes  MySQL , Oracle  and   MS SQL Server .

A relational database is a database that is based on the relational model . The Relational Database Model was  proposed and  developed by E.F. Codd  who was an English computer scientist  while working for IBM .

Relational Database Model , RDBMS
Relational Database Model Example , RDBMS

What Is RDBMS ?

In  a relational database model  , the database is logically organized  as  group of inter related tables . Each table can have multiple rows and columns . A table is a collection  of  records and  represents a database entity .

Each row in a table represents a record ( Tuple / Row ) which consist of number of data fields . The  columns  in a table  represents  an  attribute  for  an  entity .

The intersection of row and column is referred as field which actually holds the data. Each field can be accessed with reference to respective column and row.


Relational Database Management System ( RDBMS )

What Is Table In RDBMS ?

Relational Database Table , Database Management System , RDBMS


Database Management System FAQ

What Is Database ?

The Database is an organized collection of inter-related data permanently stored into the storage device. The database can be used for the efficient management of data.

The database allows the retrieval, insertion and deletion of data from the database. The data is organized into the database in the form of tables, views, schemas, reports etc.

Video Database Tutorial

What Is Database , Database, DBMS

For Example, a business organization can store the data related to the customer, employees, inventory and accounts.

Similarly, the university database can organize the data related to students, exam records, time tables, staff,  faculty, and accounts.

What Is Data ?

Since the database contains the data , and therefore it is important to understand the meaning of term in the context of DBMS.

The term data  is defined as  recordable facts , observations  , factual information , set of values  and  figures related to some specific entity.

The entity can be either an object that has physical existence or simply a conceptual entity such as courses offer by an university.

What Is Data , Data Processing , RDBMS , Relational Database
What Is Data , Data Processing , RDBMS , Relational Database

The objects can be either students , employees , customers ,  house, car and other such entities. The data must be collected and stored that can be digitally processed.

 For example the employee related data could be the information such as employee Name , address , designation , DOB , Salary and other such information stored into the employee database.

What Is Database Management System ( DBMS ) ?

The term Database Management System ( DBMS ) is an application software specially designed and used for the creation and management of the databases.

Some of the most common examples of the Database Management System ( DBMS ) include MySQL , Oracle, MangoDB, Vector Database and MS SQL Server.

The DBMS works as an interface between the application program and the database to perform various database operations.

Most Popular DBMS , Database Management Systems
Most Popular DBMS , Database Management Systems

What Is SQL?

The SQL is a standard database communication language used by the application software to communicate with the DBMS to perform various database operations.

The SQL stands for structured Query Language is a standard database programming language and considered as industry standard. The SQL is widely supported by many database management systems.


What are database operations ?

The database are managed by using DBMS software. The DBMS performs various database operations such as creating database and tables, data retrieval, data insertion, data deletion and report generation.

The database user communicates with the application software for DB operation to be performed.

The application software communicates with DBMS and translates the into necessary SQL commands. The DBMS performs the desired DB operation as per the SQL command.

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Database Management System

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